- Leave the stabbing object in the wound! Pulling it out will increase blood loss and pushing it will cause further injury.
- Stop the bleeding. Apply pressure on – or around, if the object is still embedded – with a clean shirt or towel. Minimize contact with the person’s blood by wrapping plastic bags or disposable gloves around your hands. If you have limited supplies, place sterile dressings atop the wound and apply non-sterile dressing (clothes, dirty towels, etc.) on top of the dressing. Apply extra padding if the intestines or other internal organs are protruding. Secure the bandage with padding and push down with light pressure if the person needs to sit up or vomit. Do not lift or remove the dressing after you put it on. Moving the dressing will disrupt the clotting process. Do NOT use a tourniquet except as a last resort.
- If the wound is bleeding profusely, apply pressure to the major artery leading to the area with the pads on your fingers while your other hand applies pressure to the wound itself. Press on the inside of the arm just above the elbow or just below the armpit to slow bleeding in the arm. Press behind the knee or in the groin if the leg is bleeding.
- If possible, reposition the person so the wound is above the level of the heart. It will reduce blood loss.
- Treat shock only after stopping or slowing the bleeding.
A study published in the American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry indicates that middle-aged adults with a history of problem drinking are more than twice as likely to suffer from severe memory impairment in later life.
The study highlights the hitherto largely unknown link between harmful…
3-D Printer Uses Light To Make Superstiff Materials
by Michael Keller
Engineers report they have made ultralight, ultrastiff materials using a light-based 3-D printing method.
With a technique called projection microstereolithography, MIT and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers shine a pattern of light onto a pool of liquid resin to form precise lattice structures. This light hardens the liquid where it touches, building layer after layer until the object is completed. So far, the team has used the method to form tiny lattices made of polymer, metal and ceramic.
By determining the exact geometry of the diagonal, horizontal and vertical beams that make up the tiny latticework, the team can design tiny lightweight structures made mostly of air that are incredibly stiff.
Why is horseshoe crab blood so vital to pharmaceuticals?
Every drug certified by the FDA must be tested with an extract from the animal’s blood, but the biomedical harvest is affecting horseshoe crab populations.
Researchers at UC San Francisco have found that children with sensory processing disorders have decreased structural brain connections in specific sensory regions different than those in autism, further establishing SPD as a clinically important neurodevelopmental disorder.
The research, published in the journal PLOS ONE, is the first study to compare structural connectivity in the brains of children with an autism diagnosis versus those with an SPD diagnosis, and with a group of typically developing boys. This new research follows UCSF’s groundbreaking study published in 2013 that was the first to find that boys affected with SPD have quantifiable regional differences in brain structure when compared to typically developing boys. This work showed a biological basis for the disease but prompted the question of how these differences compared with other neurodevelopmental disorders.
“With more than 1 percent of children in the U.S. diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, and reports of 5 to 16 percent of children having sensory processing difficulties, it’s essential we define the neural underpinnings of these conditions, and identify the areas they overlap and where they are very distinct,” said senior author Pratik Mukherjee, MD, PhD, a professor of radiology and biomedical imaging and bioengineering at UCSF.
SPD Gains Recognition as Distinct Condition
SPD can be hard to pinpoint, as more than 90 percent of children with autism also are reported to have atypical sensory behaviors, and SPD has not been listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual used by psychiatrists and psychologists.
“One of the most striking new findings is that the children with SPD show even greater brain disconnection than the kids with a full autism diagnosis in some sensory-based tracts,” said Elysa Marco, MD, cognitive and behavioral child neurologist at UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital San Francisco and the study’s corresponding author. “However, the children with autism, but not those with SPD, showed impairment in brain connections essential to the processing of facial emotion and memory.”
Children with SPD struggle with how to process stimulation, which can cause a wide range of symptoms including hypersensitivity to sound, sight and touch, poor fine motor skills and easy distractibility. Some SPD children cannot tolerate the sound of a vacuum, while others can’t hold a pencil or struggle with emotional regulation. Furthermore, a sound that is an irritant one day can be tolerated the next. The disease can be baffling for parents and has been a source of much controversy for clinicians who debate whether it constitutes its own disorder, according to the researchers.
“These kids, however, often don’t get supportive services at school or in the community because SPD is not yet a recognized condition,” said Marco. “We are starting to catch up with what parents already knew; sensory challenges are real and can be measured both in the lab and the real world. Our next challenge is to find the reason why children have SPD and move these findings from the lab to the clinic.”
Examining White Matter Tracts in the Brain
In the study, researchers used an advanced form of MRI called diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which measures the microscopic movement of water molecules within the brain in order to give information about the brain’s white matter tracts. The brain’s white matter forms the “wiring” that links different areas of the brain and is therefore essential for perceiving, thinking and action. DTI shows the direction of the white matter fibers and the integrity of the white matter, thereby mapping the structural connections between brain regions.
The study examined the structural connectivity of specific white matter tracts in16 boys with SPD and 15 boys with autism between the ages of 8 and 12 and compared them with 23 typically developing boys of the same age range.
The researchers found that both the SPD and autism groups showed decreased connectivity in multiple parieto-occipital tracts, the areas that handle basic sensory information in the back area of the brain. However, only the autism cohort showed impairment in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi (IFOF), inferior longitudinal fasciculi (ILF), fusiform-amygdala and the fusiform-hippocampus tracts – critical tracts for social-emotional processing.
“One of the classic features of autism is decreased eye-to-eye gaze, and the decreased ability to read facial emotions,” said Marco. “The impairment in this specific brain connectivity, not only differentiates the autism group from the SPD group but reflects the difficulties patients with autism have in the real world. In our work, the more these regions are disconnected, the more challenge they are having with social skills.”
Kids with isolated SPD showed less connectivity in the basic perception and integration tracts of the brain that serve as connections for the auditory, visual and somatosensory (tactile) systems involved in sensory processing.
“If we can start by measuring a child’s brain connectivity and seeing how it is playing out in a child’s functional ability, we can then use that measure as a metric for success in our interventions and see if the connectivities are changing based on our clinical interventions,” said Marco. “Larger studies to replicate this early work are clearly needed but we are encouraged that DTI can be a powerful clinical and research tool for understanding the basis for sensory neurodevelopmental differences.”
The Next Mars Rover Will Have Better Lasers and X-Ray Vision
“NASA announced today that its next Mars rover will have advanced cameras, more sophisticated lasers, and the ability to see underground as it explores the Red Planet starting in 2020.”
The only type of bird that relies solely on its own strength to hover in the air, a hummingbird flapping its wings requires more mass-based mechanical power output than any other form of locomotion. Now, scientists have discovered that the tiny bird’s efficiency comes from the ratio of the wing’s length to its width. Researchers from Stanford University and Wageningen University tested the hover performance of 26 hummingbird wings from 12 different species in a machine that measured the torque and lift the wings produced at various angles. The study, published online today in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface, shows that the power needed to sustain a hummingbird midhover is highly dependent on the bird’s wing aspect ratio. During the down stroke, wings with a larger aspect ratio (3.5 to 4.0 for hummingbirds) use significantly less power than wings with smaller aspect ratios. The study also found that the aerodynamic performance of hummingbird wings is “remarkably similar” to that of an advanced microhelicopter rotor. But the wings were up to 27% more efficient.
Moth looks like he’s dressed for a winter storm, and not life in the tropical rainforest.
What the Heck Is a Pangolin?
“Pangolins are being over-poached, a conservation group has warned, thanks to being “eaten to extinction" in China and Vietnam. An action plan issued Tuesday called for ending poaching, as well as increasing surveillance of trade and consumption of the endangered animals.
But before we move along, what are pangolins?”
After the graphic which looked at functional groups, here’s one that looks at some of the simpler heterocyclic compounds in organic chemistry.
For more information, to download the graphic, and to read the inevitable jokes about arsoles, head here: http://wp.me/p4aPLT-oQ